Category Archives: Academic contents

Online Journalism Seminar 1

Leave a comment

December 6, 2017 · 12:19 PM

Report Writing- The Purpose of Report (Part 4)

So far we have explored the skill of report writing in relation to the need for reading the brief, who the audience is and what is the purpose of the report. Now we are looking at

What does your audience know already

Not only do you need to consider the needs of your audience and what they want to find out from your report, you also have to take into account their background- what information do they already have? You don’t want to repeat unnecessary information since a report has to be as concise and as relevant to your readers as possible (and in most cases, you also have a word count to stick to!)

In a work situation, including information that your readers already know will undermine your authority and make your readers less receptive to your message. On your university course, your tutors want to see that you can be selective and make judgements about what is relevant. Your marking criteria will probably include something about relevance or suitability of the information.

Interview from some lecturers reveals the following:

  • A main problem with most students’ surveying reports is they spend too long describing the client’s house – but the client already knows what colour their own door is … get to the interesting information more quickly. (Real Estate and Planning Lecturer)
  • The introduction to a lab report shouldn’t be a long historical summary of all the experiments done in the field. The methods and findings of most older expeeriments have now been surpassed. (Food Science and Nutrition Lecturer)
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the client’s problem is important. It shows the students know what they are talking about, but I always ask: What is new about this? What insights are you giving me? How does your interpretation of my problem give me confidence that you’re going to provide me with solutions? (International Marketing Lecturer)

The above findings all suggest only one thing and it is the fact that you do not have to dwell so much on what is already known; instead of describing what is known already, analyse the known to lead us to the unknown and explain your findings (new information).

1 Comment

Filed under Academic contents, Personal development matters

Report Writing- The Purpose of Report (Part 3)

What is the purpose?

As a report is a piece of informative writing, it not only has an audience who wants to be informed, it also has a purpose – a reason for wanting the information.

  • What do your readers want to find out from your report?
  • How will they be reading your report?
  • Why will they be reading what you are reporting?

Often, the information in reports will be acted upon by your readers in some way. The information in different reports may have the purpose of advising, persuading or recommending the readers to do something.

 


You are asked to analyse whether regular exercise helps people manage their depression, and present the report to an audience of counsellors and doctors.


The purpose of the report is to inform the audience about whether this potential aid in the management of depression is supported by sufficient evidence.


The counsellors and doctors will want to know whether they should be recommending more regular exercise to their clients and patients based on your analysis of the evidence.


So your report needs to give clear guidance on whether the evidence suggests there are benefits to people with depression, and to what extent counsellors and doctors should act on this information.


But part of persuading an audience is being able to anticipate any scepticism they may have about the evidence you present. For example, the doctors and counsellors may raise the objection, how do we encourage our depressed patients to start exercising? You have to take this into account – just a brief acknowledgement of their concerns may make them more receptive to your message.


You may be thinking that the concept of ‘purpose’ doesn’t apply in the same way to reports on scientific experiences, but the principles of audience and purpose still apply. As a scientist, your audience is your tutor (and fellow scientists in your field) and your purpose may be to test your hypotheses. Based on the analysis of your findings, you may make recommendations for further research to fill gaps in your findings or to make them more robust.

If your brief asks you to make recommendations based on the information in your report, it is important that you make these clearly, and that they don’t get lost in the body of your conclusion. Recommendations serve a different purpose to a conclusion: a conclusion summarises why your findings are important, and recommendations say what your readers should do about this.

1 Comment

Filed under Academic contents, Personal development matters

Report Writing- The Purpose of Report (Part 2)

Who is the audience?

A report is a piece of informative writing, which means it has an intended audience who want to find things out from reading your report. Your brief, client request or assignment description should tell you who your intended audience is, and this has an important influence on the content of your report; you need to tailor the information to suit the needs of your audience.

Part 2

Reports about the same subject written for different audiences would have a very different content and tone. For instance, if you were to write a report on the business growth plan for an intended new market entry initiative, how might your report differ if you were writing it for …

  • the management of the business?
  • the team of workers helping to implement the plan?
  • the financier / sponsor of the project?
  • the shareholders’ consumption in an annual general meeting?
  • the potential indigenous strategic partner in the new market?
  • the examiner / business school lecturer as an academic coursework assessment?

An audience has a vested interest in the information being reported and motivations for wanting the investigation conducted. As a report writer, you need to take these needs into consideration.

This is why, as a student, even though your brief is set by your tutor, you may be asked to write for an imaginary client or a professional situation. In this scenario, you need to consider who will use the information that you are reporting and how they will use it – for example, will your recommendations be passed on to a secondary audience or used to advise clients or managers? What will be relevant and useful for these audiences? or is it purely for academic grading … requiring a logical sequence from an in-depth literature review and critical analysis from credible academic sources with specific academic writing style and formatting?

If your main audience is your tutor, they still want to know that you can report the findings of your investigation in a logical and relevant way, relating them to the overall purpose of the investigation. Academic writing requires in-depth details while business report have need of precision and brevity (straight-to-the-point).

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Academic contents, Personal development matters

Report Writing- The Purpose of Report (Part 1)

There are many different kinds of reports that you might have to write. Most professions have their own kinds of reports such as business reports … lab reports … research reports … academic reports and so on. Knowing how to write them well is valuable at the workplace or at university and beyond. This is because the report format is a useful and widely accepted way of structuring information.

report writing

Knowing how to structure a report and get the information in the right place can cause concerns relating to:

  • Which section should this go in?
  • How do I lay out my report?
  • What goes in the discussion?
  • What headings does a business report have?

This new series of posts on report writing answer these questions by showing you how a report structure can be a communication tool as opposed to an imprisoning set of rules. If you consider the purpose of your report and the needs of your readers, you can be confident that your structure will fulfil these needs, and each section of your report will do the correct job.

Reports are formally structured and communicate the findings of an investigation in a clear, logical way.

Your investigation may be a scientific experiment, a site visit, a series of observations, research into a process or procedure … but whatever different types of investigation you do as part of your job/assignment/contract/project, you will need to report

  • what you did
  • how you did it
  • what you found out
  • why your findings are important.

The content and structure of your report are determined by the needs of your audience and the purpose of your report … but how do you know who your audience is and what they want?

Read the brief!

Reports normally have a brief, or a set of instructions, telling you the requirements of your investigation.

In a work situation the brief may be set by your clients in which case is the clients’ request or by your manager, and they expect you to follow it! At university your brief is most likely set by your tutor … and they also expect you to follow it!

You will get the crucial information you need from reading your brief carefully. Even a short brief contains a lot of information about what you are expected to do. Your brief tells you about the investigation you are carrying out, but you also need to know the essential requirements of your assignment, such as:

  • word count
  • format
  • referencing style
  • deadline for handing in.

In addition to this, read your assessment criteria or client’s request perimeter – these will give you valuable information about what you need to demonstrate in your report and what you are expected to fulfil with respect to the ‘learning outcomes’ or ‘work quality’ as the case may be.

The next couple of posts will further demonstrate the purpose and readership of reports, how to find the information your readers need, the role that each section plays in communicating this information, how to present your information visually … and how to communicate all this concisely!

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Academic contents, Business support related issues, Personal development matters

Writing A Literature Review and Using a Synthesis Matrix

How do you pull together a body of literature? Often people become overwhelmed trying to organize information from many different sources. The mistake that many dissertation writers make when they try to write a review of literature is they describe and summarize individual sources rather than analyzing and synthesizing them. Critical analysis and synthesis involves consideration of the conceptual and methodological strengths and weaknesses of the studies you discuss, relating the sources to each other and to your proposed research, and identifying areas of convergence and divergence as well as unanswered questions that your study addresses.

There are a number of tools that can help you analyze and synthesize your key sources. In this post, you will learn about using a synthesis matrix to organize the sources in your literature review and integrate them into a unique interpretation that not only serves as the foundation of your study but also contributes to the dialogue in your field and establishes your credibility as a scholar.

Below are related FAQs and Answers:

My professor says I have to write a literature review, what do I do?

Well, to begin, you have to know that when writing a literature review, the goal of the researcher is to determine the current state of knowledge about a particular topic by asking, “What do we know or not know about this issue?” In conducting this type of research, it is imperative to examine several different sources to determine where the knowledge overlaps and where it falls short. A literature review requires a synthesis of different subtopics to come to a greater understanding of the state of knowledge on a larger issue. It works very much like a jigsaw puzzle. The individual pieces (arguments) must be put together in order to reveal the whole (state of knowledge).

So basically I just read the articles and summarize each one separately?

No, a literature review is not a summary. Rather than merely presenting a summary of each source, a literature review should be organized according to each subtopic discussed about the larger topic. For example, one section of a literature review might read “Researcher A suggests that X is true. Researcher B also argues that X is true, but points out that the effects of X may be different from those suggested by Researcher A.” It is clear that subtopic X is the main idea covered in these sentences. Researchers A and B agree that X is true, but they disagree on X’s effects. There is both agreement and disagreement, but what links the two arguments is the fact that they both concern X.

This sounds like a lot of information, how can I keep it organized?

Because a literature review is NOT a summary of these different sources, it can be very difficult to keep your research organized. It is especially difficult to organize the information in a way that makes the writing process simpler. One way that seems particularly helpful in organizing literature reviews is the synthesis matrix. The synthesis matrix is a chart that allows a researcher to sort and categorize the different arguments presented on an issue. Across the top of the chart are the spaces to record sources, and along the side of the chart are the spaces to record the main points of argument on the topic at hand. As you examine your first source, you will work vertically in the column belonging to that source, recording as much information as possible about each significant idea presented in the work. Follow a similar pattern for your following sources. As you find information that relates to your already identified main points, put it in the pertaining row. In your new sources, you will also probably find new main ideas that you need to add to your list at the left. You now have a completed matrix!

CREATING YOUR SYNTHESIS MATRIX

As you write your review, you will work horizontally in the row belonging to each point discussed. As you combine the information presented in each row, you will begin to see each section of your paper taking shape. Remember, some of the sources may not cover all of the main ideas listed on the left, but that can be useful also. The gaps on your chart could provide clues about the gaps in the current state of knowledge on your topic.  It is probably best to begin your chart by labeling the columns both horizontally and vertically. The sample chart below illustrates how to do this.

Topic: ______________________________________

                        Source #1        Source #2         Source #3

Main Idea A

Main Idea B

Main Idea C

Label the columns across the top of your chart with the author’s last name and year of publication or with a few keywords from the title of the work. Then label the sides of the chart with the main ideas that your sources discuss about your topic. As you read each source, make notes in the appropriate column about the information discussed in the work, as shown in the following chart.

[Click on the charts to have a clearer view.]

Synthesis Matrix 1Synthesis Matrix 2

After your chart is complete, notice patterns of information. You may find that your sources, at times, discuss very similar material, or that they sometimes deal with completely different aspects of your topic. These patterns can be useful in creating a thesis statement that can guide your writing and keep you focused as you begin your draft.

WRITING YOUR REVIEW

Now how does the above matrix (chart) translate into a review of literature?

Here is an example: “World War Two and its Effect on Women.” This excerpt synthesizes information without summarizing.

While the articles used in this research agree that women made many advances during the Word War II period, it is crucial to realize that not all these changes were welcomed. In most cases women faced discrimination from just about everyone around them. Women in the workplace were often placed in positions of inferiority or treated as being less physically able to do the same work the men did. Many women were often not trained because they were viewed as temporary employees who were only there for the duration of the war (Bruley, 2003, pp.221-222). Women were very rarely given equal pay as men, even though some of them did the same work. Women in the military faced not only mental abuse but also physical harm from their male counterparts. According to Cornelsen (2005), there were many instances where female aviators were injured or killed due to being made to fly ill-maintained aircrafts or aircrafts that had been sabotaged. (p.114)

The sample above is an excellent example of how to synthesize information adequately. Notice how when transitioning from Bruley to Cornelsen the writer notes not only that the two articles are similar, but also how they are similar. The writer goes into detail about Bruley’s discussion of women in industry facing discrimination while noting that Stewart deals with prejudice in the military. The author also transitions well between the Bruley article and the Cornelsen article; rather than summarizing, the author draws comparisons between the two articles, giving relevant information and at the same time synthesizing the two works.

Leave a comment

Filed under Academic contents, Personal development matters

How to get your secondary research done quickly, and effectively!

Researching is the most important facet for completing an assignment and ensuring it is of good quality. Secondary Research for an essay or literature review begins with the essay question itself or the literature review subject matter. If the assignment brief provides a structure for the essay then research would be easier as you would know the exact areas that are required but if a structure is not provided like in the case of a literature review then you will have to decide upon your own structure for the secondary research. Below are seven steps to producing a literature review that may be followed:

Literature Review

Try to decide upon the structure of your secondary research by looking at the title of the essay or research topic as the case may be. Break the title into the various components and then research accordingly.

The research process should try and identify the components and the links between them (in the title) and should also incorporate the implications this would have. For instance, lets say that the title of your essay or research topic is The Impact of Social Media on Youth Today.

Here you would need to look into two different aspects:
– Social Media
– Teenagers today and any notable trends pertaining to them
– Then you would need to correlate these two with the impact.
– You need to focus on the advantages or the positive impacts and also need to look into the disadvantages or the negative impacts and then finally conclude.

So the skeletal structure could be as follows:
Social Media- What is the social media? Any interesting points?
Youth Today- A general discussion about the youth today and focus on technology.

————————————-
Positive impact of social media on youth
Negative Impact of social media on youth
Are the positives more or are the negatives more? Conclude with your own view point.

————————————-

Further you would also need to refer to scholarly materials for authenticating your own ideas and identify some good places to find out the scholarly materials – this could include online article databases as well as the university library. However, if you do not have much access then Google Scholar can be a good place to assist you with the research and the referencing.

We hope this helps and if you need any help with your work just contact us via email at m.odunnaike@edusearchuk.com

Advert

Leave a comment

Filed under Academic contents, Personal development matters

The challenges of Small Scale Enterprises in Business Strategy Development and their effect on Performance: A Theoretical Discussion

Introduction

The Context

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are vital entities in any country’s economy because of the many economic benefits they generate to such economy. It is logically not untrue that every large organisation started out relatively small before they became what they are today. It was stated that small firm’s “selection of strategy is critical for survival given the disadvantages they face” (Ebben and Johnson 2005, p.1250; cited by Rizzo 2011). Small and medium-sized business strategy has been widely studied as evidenced by the volume of available literature on what informs small business strategy and its concomitant business performance. However, there does not seem to be any concept, which assesses directly the influence of both the merits and demerits of the characteristics of Small and medium sized business on the strategic decisions they make to improve performance.

Moreover, the fact that small businesses are unique is a challenge to make conclusions about some generic characteristics about them. In order words, issues like industry specificity due to the nature of business, the ownership and management issues, the business peculiar environment, organisational structure, the personality of the owner-manager; their personal financial status, goals, values, beliefs, philosophies, skills and so on, are to be considered when generalising a certain characteristic of a ‘typical’ small business.

Appreciating the diversity of small businesses generally, will enhance the discussion of how a small business can manage the characteristics of being a small sized business and make its strategic plan to fit its peculiarities and the environment in which it operates. The purpose of this study is to add to the existing knowledge of small business strategies and performance, the concept of integrating diversity issues in addressing the characteristics of a Small business to inform strategic decision making process. This is done by perusing existing literature to find out how strategies employed in the private sector by SMEs impact on their performance and the challenges they face in their choice of strategies, due to their growing nature (size) against large-sized firms. Critical assessment of existing theories, which deal with small business strategic formulation and the concomitant results of such strategies are made, with focus on what drives the strategic choices in practice. The approach is that these theories are relatively considered in the light of the known distinctive peculiarities of any SMEs, some of which are as aforementioned.

Overview of Strategy and Strategic Formulation

What is Strategy?

To gain a quick understanding of the term strategy, and what strategic formulation entails, Meyer et al. (2007, p.241) describe strategy as the “cluster” of decisions and managerial actions toward achieving organisational goals. This definition omits an important feature of a more comprehensive view Johnson et al.(2012) observe in their definition; as the long-term direction of an organisation.

Click on the link What is Strategy to view a diagram that illustrates Johnson et al. notion in more detail.

Strategic decisions seek to attain the long-term goals of the mission statement and vision of an organisation by assessing the gap between the current position of such organisation against its desired state and devising means or actions to bridge the gap. A huge number of literature emphasis the importance of long-term direction in relation to business and corporate level strategies. Jennings and Beaver (1997) call it a “predictive process” but however intimate that in smaller businesses, strategies often emerge accidently in response to a functional or operating situation facing the enterprises. This was named the “adaptive process” (Jennings and Beaver 1997; Gronum et al. 2012).

This school of thought somehome inter-relate two approaches to strategy formulation, which are the emergent approach and the resource-based approach. (Jennings and Beaver 1997, p.64; Garengo et al. 2012), Emergent strategics arise from adhoc (pattern of behaviour)or uncontrolled responses to circumstances to take advantage of immediate benefit usually by manipulating scarce resources. This however is the idea of resource-based approach which emphasises on internal capabilities in strategy formulation in order to gain sustainable competitive advantage. This suggest that the adaptive approach may be a plus rather than a disadvantage to small and medium-sized enterprises. Therefore in order not to downplay on the benefits of a predictive process CIMA (2011) termed as the traditional, rational, formal or top-down, long-term goal approach, small firms may profitably adopt the rational approach and at the same time open to any emergent strategy that may arise.

Long term organisational planning requires a whole process of strategic planning process that takes many things into consideration (Gronum et al. 2005). This process combines 3 approaches, which are rational, resource based, and position based approach. The rational approach involves a top-down comprehensive and systematic steps of determining mission and setting goals and objectives by carrying out strategic analysis to establish strengths and weaknesses internally (resource based), opportunities and threats, competitors analysis in the external environment (position based), stakeholders analysis to incorporate their interest in the mission statement and satisfy key stakeholders with high influence and also a gap analysis (Thomas and Israel 2009; Levy 2009; Silva 2012). The result of these analyses is to present possible strategic options or choices in bridging the gap between the present position (expected state) and the vision (desired state). That is, to basically achieve the goals and the objectives.

Click this link to view a diagram illustrating an overview of the Strategic Planning Process

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

 The Context

Small and medium-sized enterprises are sometimes referred to as small firms or small businesses in this literature and of course in its general perception of the small size of employees registered, asset base, turnover and level of simplicity involved in their business processes and organisation structure- put together, size of firm. Maximum care was given to the choice of literatures reviewed in relation to the size of firms the researchers and authors considered in their own study, in the necessary areas of this review that requires this context. This means, some theories and general concepts (applicable to all cases), which do not need this specificity (size of firm), are also reviewed without minding the context of the size of firms the researchers and authors referred to.

Also there is no restriction as to the industry, sector, or geographical location these SMEs are based since the idea is to generally deal with these peculiarities or better put, relativities as they affect the choice of strategies being put in place by these ‘small firms’. It is worthy of note also that the bases of classifying a firm as small and medium sized is relative regionally or nationally(European commission 2013). For instance, according to European Commission (2013) firms are classified as SMEs in the EU on the basis of number of employees, and turnover or balance sheet total, whereas in Nigeria, the basis of judgement is firm’s asset base and number of staff. This is the case too at some other countries like Canada where a firm that has below 100 employees is considered as a small business only if the business is a goods-producing one, and not the case if the business is service-based unless its employees are lesser than 50. This implies a SME in a country could be categorised as large firm in another.

General characteristics of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

It is generally believed that SMEs are characterised by some features with merits and mostly demerits compared to large firms. Financial constraints, limited resources, core incompetencies and lack of managerial skills are frequently mentioned in the literatures and also the issue of understaffing, which causes overworking and stress leading to performance ineffectiveness (Pettigrew 1977; Mintzberg et al.1995; Mintzberg 1973; 1978; 1987; 2001; Johnson et al. 2008; Veettil 2008; Grant 2009; Barney and Hesterly 2010; Silva 2012).

The most commonly discussed is the issue of Owner-manager phenomena. Because the manager is not differentiated from the owner, personal values and aspirations sets into business, and thus firm organisational culture is weak due to organisational politics. This is nothing far from an informal organisational structure. Business processes are unstandardised and firms lack effective corporate strategy. Rizzo (2011, p.2)observed that “small firms have no strategy, that the firm simply follows the whims of its owner-manager, acting heuristically and basing its decisions on instinct, gut feeling, and circumstances.” The major merit the above characteristics presents to SMEs in relation to strategy formulation and implementation is the fact that organisation could be flexible and adaptive to their environment by for example matching their limited resources to the opportunities and threats in their outside environment (Jennings and Beaver 1997; Veettil 2008). One of the major disadvantages is formal strategic planning procedures that large firms apply are not relevant to small firms because of owner-manager’s lack of adequate resource capacity for such activities as formal strategic planning, and will act most of the time on “intuition, experience and instinct” (McCarthy 2003 p.2; cited by Rizzo 2011).

Peculiarities of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and their Strategic choices

The point made by a number of researchers regarding the generic characteristics of SMEs is that not all SMEs are characterised by the features discussed above. It was established that the business environment in which SMEs operate for instance is totally different based on geographical location. Not all owner-managers are informal in their processes or influences business decisions based on their personal preferences (Jennings and Breaver 1997; O’Regan 2000; Kuckertz 2012). Some SMEs even have their owners separated from their managers. In this case, owners are seen as entrepreneurs while they employ the service of qualified and competent manager (Jennings and Breaver 1997). Although Veettil (2008) noted that owners preferences influence their choice of strategy.

Strategic choices are complex because they are being determined by so many factors which could either be qualitative or quantitative or both. A number of tools, techniques or methods are adopted. Apart from influences within, organisations are more faced with external forces such as “risk of entry, Bargaining power of buyers, power of complement providers, threat of substitutes, and bargaining power of suppliers”(Jones and Hill 2013). These are opportunities and threats to SMEs regardless of either their generic or peculiar characteristics.

Strategic choices according to Veettil (2008) is also be determined by implementation issues confronting SMEs in relation to envisaged inability to implement such strategies.

Strategies Choices and Performance

Jones and Hill (2013) argues that strategies have major impact on companies performance relative to its competitors. This implies that if strategies are not competitive and give competitive edge, superior performances cannot be attained. This is in congruence with Porter’s(1980) postulation which identified 3 business strategies firms can generally adopt to gain sustainable competitive position in its industry. These are cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. This strategic theory suggests that threat from the five competitive forces can be mitigated if organisations can reduce it cost well enough to give part of the premium to end customers to satisfy them, present products and services they produce uniquely, and focusing on major value adding activities of the business. However, Veettil (2008) intimated that apart from viewing performance from competitive point such as sales growth, market share and so on, performance can also be measured by objective fulfilment. This idea is the goal initiated concept of formulating strategies as presented by the classical model where rational and formal approaches are laid on.

The theory that addresses small business strategic peculiarity issues

Against the generic strategies put forward by Porter, Strategies should consider specific current and emerging issues which are peculiar to the particular firm. Their negative characteristics could be seen as weaknesses and they should device strategies that will convert such weaknesses to strength. Just like limited resources could be manipulated and matched to opportunities and threats hence being proactive and adaptive at the same time. Mintzberg (1973) considers the environment of the business as a factor to be monitored and controlled by searching for opportunities being proactive in the face of risks and uncertainty. This he calls Entrepreneurial Mode of strategy making. This is part of the three modes of strategy making theory he formulated.

This theory is so comprehensive such that any SMEs can adopt in the strategic planning process, regardless of its peculiarities and challenges posed by its characteristic. It combines all the available approaches together in one place while considering the relative characteristics of a typical organisation, and conditions for use. Three modes which can be mixed depending on the organisation need and circumstances are displayed in the table below. The Planning mode is the systematic attainment of goals and comprehensive involving scientific techniques to develop strategic plans. It uses majorly the formal approach discussed above. It is analytical, too rigid especially for SMEs and demanding time, funds and other resources. In the Adaptive mode, strategies are not made rigidly following a procedure but “shrewdly”, resourcefully and to solve problems as they emerge (reactive). There are no clear goals, thus, unrelated decisions are made. The third one is the Entrepreneurial mode which is more applicable in a centralised system, and it sees the environment as a factor to be monitored & controlled. Business growth is the main goal as firm searches for new opportunities in an uncertain but proactive manner (Mintzberg 1973; Veettil 2008). For the purpose of this research, this model is being adapted to incorporate characteristics of SMEs discussed here while considering the uniqueness of any SMEs.

Click on this link to download Mintzberg’s three modes of Strategy Making

Conclusion

Small businesses are reactive in their approach to strategy. They do not adopt formal approach but emergent because of certain characteristics such as managerial incompetence, informal structure, the owner-manager lacks sufficient time due to workload, limited employees to implement formal strategies at functional level and so on. Small businesses operate in a dynamic environment such that is not stable and this make formal planning inappropriate for them because of its inflexibility.

Short term orientation is most times driven by the owner-managers selfish interest as the key stakeholder. However, an advantage this provides is sustainability of emergent strategies that could as well be consistently successful due to effective allocation of scarce resources to deal with circumstances. This promotes the resource-based approach.

Small businesses with informal organisational structure who also have limited resources including small size of workforce, may adopt the adapted Mintzberg three mode of strategy making above, regardless of the challenges they face in assigning responsibilities for implementing strategies as they can mix modes to fit their situation, and different conditions are met. So small business can only choose strategies that they are capable of managing (Resource based view).

Leave a comment

Filed under Academic contents, Business support related issues